Coffee is a permanent crop, produced by the coffee tree. These shrubs require a high temperature of 20 ° and important atmospheric humidity.
It is a semi-shade plant, which must be protected from the winds and low temperatures. The first harvest of a coffee tree occurs around 2 years, taking up to 2 or 3 more years until the tree reaches its normal production. Trees can produce quality fruit for up to 20 years, after which the quality of the fruit will decline.
The coffee harvest is highly labor intensive because it grows in mountainous areas and because in the same branches of a mature tree there are buds, green, yellow and ripe fruits all blooming at the same time.
When all the cherry is harvested, mature, green and dry, the quality of the grain obtained is of inferior quality, although the cost of harvesting is smaller.
ARABIAN VARIETY The Arabica variety (Coffea arabiga) has a lower caffeine content than the robust variety. It is grown mainly throughout Peru. It is the most abundant cultivated species.
ROBUST VARIETY The robust variety (Coffea Canephora) has a higher caffeine content. It is more resistant to pests and needs less care, therefore it is more economical. It is grown mainly in Africa and Indonesia. It is the second most abundant cultivated spice.
Other Varieties There are other less important and widespread species, such as: Coffea liberica, Coffea Dewevrei, Coffea Stenophylla, Coffea Congensis, Coffea Abeokutae, Coffea Klainii, Coffea Zanguebariae and Coffea Racemosa.